P116 Screening for low BMI and unintentional weight loss alone is insufficient to identify patients at risk for malnutrition in an outpatient IBD population
Hendrix, E.M.B.(1,2);Spooren, C.E.G.M.(1,2);Grommen, D.(2);Mujagic, Z.(1,2);Pierik, M.J.(1,2);Jonkers, D.M.A.E.(1,2);
(1)Maastricht University, School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism NUTRIM, Maastricht, The Netherlands;(2)Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Department of Internal Medicine- Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Maastricht, The Netherlands;
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with malnutrition, which can further impair disease course and quality of life. Therefore, guidelines advocate screening of patients in clinical practice. The prevalence of malnutrition in IBD-cohorts however, varies widely, mainly due to differences in parameters used. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition using single and a combined set of parameters (Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria). Secondary aims were i) to evaluate the accuracy of screening recommendations given in current IBD guidelines and ii) to explore which patients have an increased risk of malnutrition.
Malnutrition was defined by the GLIM criteria, based on the combination of a phenotypic (i.e. non-volitional weight loss, low body mass index (BMI), or reduced muscle mass) and an etiologic criterium (i.e. reduced food intake or assimilation, and disease burden or inflammation). Malnutrition was also determined using single parameters for impaired body composition, muscle strength or caloric intake (Table 1), and the combination of low BMI and unintentional weight loss as advised in current IBD guidelines. To screen for malnutrition, the Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) were completed. Independent risk factors (i.e. clinical and demographic factors) for malnutrition were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression.
Of the 200 included patients (139 CD, 61 UC), 41 (20.5%) fulfilled the GLIM criteria, 95 (47.5%) had at least one parameter for malnutrition impaired (Figure 1). The fat free mass index was most often affected. When unintentional weight loss and/or low BMI was used as screening marker for nutritional status in line with current IBD guidelines, 29 (14.5%) patients would have been identified (Figure 2). Screening for malnutrition using the SNAQ and MUST detected 44 (22.0%) and 23 (12.9%) patients with a positive score. Only female sex was associated with malnutrition when at least one parameter was impaired (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.35-4.51).
Malnutrition prevalence among IBD outpatients according to the GLIM criteria was found to be 20.5%. Almost half of the IBD outpatients had malnutrition as defined by various single parameters and irrespective of disease characteristics. Screening instruments and/or markers according to current IBD guidelines, did not identify a substantial part of the patients. Therefore, screening for malnutrition is recommended for all IBD outpatients by multiple parameters, with special attention for assessing fat free mass and reduced intake.