P302 Precision medicine for a case with monogenic inflammatory bowel disease
Schwärzler, J.P.(1)*;Zollner, A.(1);Dolejsi, T.(2);Enrich, B.(1);Mayr, L.(1);Sturm, W.(1);Tancevski, I.(3);Zschocke, J.(4);Adolph, T.E.(1);Tilg, H.(1);
(1)Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Internal Medicine I- Gastroenterology- Hepatology- Endocrinology & Metabolism, Innsbruck, Austria;(2)Medical University of Innsbruck, University Hospital for Internal Medicine III, Innsbruck, Austria;(3)Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Internal Medicine II- Infectious Diseases- Immunology- Rheumatology- Pneumology, Innsbruck, Austria;(4)Medical University of Innsbruck, Institute of Human Genetics, Innsbruck, Austria;
Here we report the case of a 33-year-old patient suffering from recurring infections since childhood, and Crohn’s disease (CD)-like inflammation in the ileum and colon for 5 years. The patient was transferred to our hospital due to severe pneumonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium chimaera infection, recurrent fever, bronchiectasis, cachexia (BMI 12.9) and severe gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhoea with blood 15 times per day). Colonoscopy revealed a peculiar inflammatory pattern in the ileum and the colon without healthy sections and deep punched lesions which did not fit to a diagnosis of CD.
Exome sequencing was performed and pathogenic variants identified by in silico prediction. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 1 (STAT1) activation was assessed by immunoblot after treatment with JAK-inhibitors. STAT1 activation was quantified in leukocytes of whole blood samples by flow cytometry. Mucosal sections were used to quantify STAT1 activation within mucosal cells by multicolour immunofluorescence. Two healthy individuals served as controls.
Exome sequencing revealed a pathogenic mutation (c.1256C>G) in the STAT1 gene, which was predicted to cause a gain-of-function. STAT1 is part of the JAK/STAT1 pathway which is induced by different stimuli and orchestrates proliferation and responses of immune cells as a transcription factor. Isolated PBMCs from the patient exhibited increased STAT1 activation, and in whole blood samples increased levels were particularly observed in Monocytes and T-helper cells. In mucosal sections activated STAT1 was especially expressed in immune cells but also epithelial cells. Stimulation of PBMCs with Upadacitinib or Tofacitinib and partially with Filgotinib decreased STAT1 levels. We initiated treatment with Tofacitinib due to the in vitro results and its approval to treat ulcerative colitis. After two weeks, clinical symptoms improved drastically and endoscopy performed after 3 month indicated full remission, which was paralleled by a normalisation of STAT1 in PBMCs.
We present a case with a rare form of Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) caused by a gain-of-function mutation affecting the STAT1 gene. IBD-like symptoms are unusual for STAT1 mutations, which usually present as immunodeficiency, and this specific mutation was only identified twice before and listed in data bases without describing the clinical phenotype. Our results and approach demonstrate how delineating the specific pathomechanism of a case with IBD enables targeted and precision treatment, a currently intensively investigated concept which might be implemented into clinical routine to treat IBD in the future.