P537 Anemia in Crohn's Disease: Response to treatment and risk of recurrence
Gharbi, G.(1);Bibani, N.(1);Sabbah, M.(1);Nawel, B.(1);Trad, D.(1);Ouakaa, A.(1);Elloumi, H.(1);Gargouri, D.(1);
(1)Habib Thameur Hospital, Gastroenterology, tunis, Tunisia
Anemia is common in Crohn's Disease (CD). Iron deficiency and inflammation are the most common etiologies.
The aim of our study is to assess the response of patients with CD to anemia treatment , as well as the predisposing factors for recurrence after treatment.
This is a retrospective study including patients with CD complicated by anemia, treated in the gastroenterology department between January 2015 and December 2019.
Iron deficiency anemia is defined by a ferritin level <50 ng /ml, it is inflammatory if the CRP level is high with a ferritin level which exceeds 100 ng/ml and mixed if this later ranges between 50 and 100 ng/ml.
Fifty-four patients were included with a M / F sex ratio of 1.3. The mean age was 40.5 years old with a mean age at diagnosis of CD of 29 years old. Patients had ileal or ileocolic involvement in 82.2% of cases and pure colonic involvement in 16.7%. The main symptoms of anemia were asthenia (64.8%) and mucocutaneous pallor (42.6%).
Severe anemia was noted in 64.8% of patients. The factors statistically associated with severe anemia were: the number of relapses before the diagnosis of anemia (p= 0.012), an active disease (p = 00.024) assessed by the CDAI score, the presence of a deficiency syndrome, in particular hypocholesterolemia (p= 0.007) and hypocalcemia (p= 0.006).
The anemia was inflammatory in 44.4% of patients, iron deficiency in 31.7%, mixed in 20.4% and vitamin B12 deficiency in 16.7% of them.
Treatment of anemia depending on the etiology was effective in 72% of patients. The response was partial in 24% of cases. Only 4% of patients did not respond to treatment.
The predictive factors of a poor response to anemia treatment were: the disease duration (p= 0.05), an active disease at the time of diagnosis of anemia (p= 0.025) and an extended ileal resection (p= 0.005).
Patients with inflammatory anemia responded better to treatment (p= 0.006).
A longer duration of iron suplementation (p = 0.02), as well as the route of administration (IV) (p= 0.014) were correlated with a better response to therapy in case of iron deficiency anemia.
Recurrence of anemia was observed in 84.3% of patients with a mean time after anemia correction of 11.5 months.
Serum ferritin levels <20 ng/ml during follow-up was the main risk factor for recurrence of anemia (p= 0.01).
Even after treatment, recurrence of anemia is common especially in patients followed for CD with ileal involvement. A clinical-biological remission, a sufficient duration of iron treatment and the control of the response to treatment by the dosage of the ferritin level even after the correction of the anemia is necessary in order to avoid this recurrence and thus ensure a better quality of life .