P663 Mild COVID-19 disease and breakthrough cases among children with inflammatory bowel disease: An update from an international registry
Brenner, E.(1);Zhang, X.(2);Agrawal, M.(3);Ungaro, R.(3);Colombel, J.F.(3);Kappelman, M.(1);
(1)University of North Carolina, Pediatrics, Chapel Hill, United States;(2)University of North Carolina, Medicine, Chapel Hill, United States;(3)Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Medicine, New York, United States;
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) tends to cause mild disease in children, although severe disease occurs rarely. Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often receive immunosuppressive medications that may increase risk of infectious complications. Little is known about the severity of breakthrough infection after COVID-19 vaccination in children with IBD. We describe COVID-19 outcomes among children with IBD, including those with breakthrough infection.
The Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) is a database created to evaluate COVID-19 outcomes in IBD patients. We included children (age ≤18) from the SECURE-IBD database through November 17th, 2021. We used descriptive statistics to summarize demographic/disease characteristics of the study population, both overall and stratified by hospitalization status, and performed bivariate comparisons. We reported demographic and clinical details of patients requiring an intensive care unit stay and those with breakthrough infection (defined as ≥1 COVID-19 vaccination prior to infection), respectively.
We analyzed 606 pediatric IBD COVID-19 cases from 37 countries. The most common IBD medications were tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist monotherapy (48%) and sulfasalazine/mesalamine (20%). Most patients (85%) had no non-IBD comorbidities. No patients died, and 28 children (5%) were hospitalized. Factors associated with hospitalization included non-IBD comorbid conditions (43% hospitalized vs 13% not; p <0.01), moderate/severe IBD disease activity (61% vs 15%; p <0.01 overall), gastrointestinal symptoms (68% vs 16%, p <0.01), and steroid use (29% vs 6%, p <0.01). TNF antagonist monotherapy was associated with a decreased likelihood of hospitalization (29% vs 49%; p value 0.03) (Table 1). Seven patients needed intensive care, and three (0.5%) required mechanical ventilation (Table 2). There were nine fully vaccinated and five partially vaccinated patients who developed breakthrough infection, of whom only one required hospitalization but did not need a ventilator (Table 3). The majority of patients with breakthrough infection (13/14) were on systemic immunosuppressants at the time of COVID-19 infection (10/14 on TNF antagonists).
We found that children with IBD have a relatively low risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. Among children with IBD who developed COVID-19 after vaccination, the majority were on immunosuppressants and had mild disease that did not require hospitalization. These data may reassure families and providers of children with IBD during the COVID-19 pandemic and support public health recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination among eligible children with IBD.